The Terminology of Cybercrime

In a previous post I looked at possible ways to translate “grooming,”* one of the criminal offenses that can be committed on the Internet. As an addition, here are some of the other terms and expressions related to what is generally known as “cybercrime” that I have collected in readings to include in my personal glossaries. (Note: many of these terms may be written either as one word or two: i.e., “cybercrime” or “cyber crime.”)

  • cybercrime; computer crime (ciberdelito; cibercriminalidad; criminalidad informática; delito informático/telemático; ciberdelincuencia; delincuencia informática)
  • cybercriminal (ciberdelincuente; cibercriminal; delincuente informático)
  • cybersecurity (ciberseguridad; seguridad informática)
  • cyberrisk (ciberriesgo; riesgo informático)
  • cyberinsurance (ciberseguros)
  • cyberattack (ciberataque; ataque informático; ataque digital; ataque cibernético)
  • cybersabotaje (sabotaje informático)
  • cyberterrorism (ciberterrorismo)
  • cyberespionage; cyberspying (ciberespionaje)
  • computer fraud (fraude informático; estafa informática)
  • cybertheft (hurto informático)
  • cyberextortion (ciberextorsión)
  • cyberbulling (ciberacoso)
  • child grooming; sexual grooming (ciberacoso sexual a menores; ciberacoso infantil)
  • hacking (piratería informática; intrusismo informático; acceso no autorizado a sistemas informáticos)
  • hacker (pirata informático)
  • cracking (violación de códigos de acceso)
  • identity theft (usurpación de identidad)
  • phishing (apoderamiento de datos de acceso)
  • web spoofing (suplantación de página web)
  • piggybacking (parasitismo informático)
  • denial-of-service attack, DoS attack (ataque de denegación de servicio; ataque DoS)
  • data leakage; information leakage (fuga de datos; divulgación no autorizado de datos reservados)
  • data scavenging (apropiación de información residual)

*https://rebeccajowers.com/2017/05/15/translating-cybergrooming/

Capsule Vocabularies: Terminology of Spanish Divorce Proceedings

Although Spain has what may be described as “no fault divorce” (divorcio no causal), and one spouse needn’t allege grounds for divorce (causas de divorcio) against the other, divorce proceedings follow ordinary civil procedure. Thus in contested divorces (divorcios contenciosos) the spouse initiating the proceeding (the demandante) “sues” the other spouse (the demandado) by filing a petition for divorce (interponiendo demanda de divorcio).

Translation mistakes may result from the failure to recognize that the terminology of civil procedure is not commonly used in divorce proceedings in Anglo-American jurisdictions where specific, less “contentious” terms are preferred in this and in other family proceedings. In that regard it should be noted that a demanda de divorcio is often not a “complaint,” but rather a “petition for divorce.” The spouse initiating the divorce is a “petitioner,” rather than a “plaintiff” or “claimant” (demandante).” Likewise, the spouse against whom divorce is sought is called the “respondent,” rather than a “defendant” (demandado). And in this context estimar la demanda de divorcio would be translated as “to grant a divorce,” while sentencia de divorcio is widely known as a “divorce decree.”

Some of the basic vocabulary concerning divorce proceedings in Spain is provided below:

  • divorcio—divorce
  • divorcio judicial—judicially-decreed divorce
  • causas de divorcio—grounds for divorce
  • divorcio causal; sistema causalista—fault-based divorce
  • divorcio no causal; divorcio sin alegar causa—no-fault divorce
  • divorcio contencioso—contested divorce; defended divorce (UK)
  • divorcio no contencioso—uncontested divorce; undefended divorce (UK)
  • divorcio de mutuo acuerdo—divorce by mutual consent
  • “divorcio exprés”—expedited divorce*
  • demanda de divorcio—divorce petition; petition for divorce
  • demandante—petitioner
  • demandado—respondent
  • estimar la demanda de divorcio—to grant a divorce
  • sentencia de divorcio—divorce decree

*Informal expression denoting a mutually-agreed expedited no-fault divorce proceeding introduced in the Ley 15/2005 divorce reform, requiring no separation period and that may be filed after only three months of marriage.

Source: Rebecca Jowers, Léxico temático de terminología jurídica español-inglés. Madrid: Tirant lo Blanch, 2015, pp. 720-721.

Capsule Vocabularies: Terminology of Labor Disputes

ES-EN legal translators (and lawyers and professors) often require a minimum basic vocabulary in a specific area of law, something that they will be hard pressed to find searching word-by-word in a dictionary. (In this case, the “problem” with dictionaries is that they are in alphabetical order.) Blog entries labeled “Capsule Vocabularies” will feature some of the basic terminology lists developed for use by my students of legal English that I hope may also be of interest to translator and interpreter colleagues and other legal professionals.

Conflictos laborales—Labor Disputes (US); Industrial Disputes (UK)

  • boicot—boycott
  • plante—work disruption
  • paralización de trabajo/actividades—work stoppage
  • paro concertado—concerted work stoppage
  • ocupación del centro de trabajo; ocupación de talleres—workers’ takeover of workplace premises
  • disminución del rendimiento; ralentización del trabajo—slowdown; go-slow (UK)
  • huelga—strike
  • huelga general—general strike
  • huelga intermitente—intermittent strike
  • huelga política—political strike
  • huelga rotatoria rotating strike
  • huelga en puntos clave; huelga neurálgica—selective strike
  • huelga de bajo rendimiento—slowdown strike
  • huelga de brazos caídos—sit-down/sit-in strike
  • huelga de celo; trabajo a reglamento—work-to-rule strike
  • huelga de solidaridad—sympathy strike
  • huelga de advertencia—token strike; warning strike
  • huelga ilegal—unlawful strike
  • huelga salvaje—wildcat strike
  • llamar a la huelga; declarar una huelga—to call a strike
  • ir a la huelga—to go on strike
  • comité de huelga—strike committee
  • caja de resistencia—strike fund
  • piquete de huelga—picket; picketing; picketers
  • piquete informativo—informational picketing
  • piquete coactivo—coercive picketing
  • piquete secundario—secondary picketing
  • línea de piquete—picket line
  • cierre patronal—lockout
  • sustitución de huelguistas—replacement of strikers
  • esquirolaje—strikebreaking; scabbing; black-legging (UK)
  • esquirol–strikebreaker; scab; blackleg (UK)

Source: Rebecca Jowers. Léxico temático de terminología jurídica español-inglés. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2015, pp. 489-90.

Capsule Vocabularies: Terminology of Spanish Judicial Decisions (2)

A previous blog post examined the difference between the principal types of Spanish judicial decisions (resoluciones judiciales): providencias, autos and sentencias.* To complete this survey, here are some of the basic terms and expressions relating to judgments:

  • dictar sentencia—to render/hand down/give (E&W) judgment
  • tribunal sentenciador—adjudicating court; court rendering judgment
  • sentencia dictada en primera instancia—trial judgment
  • sentencia dictada en segunda instancia—appellate judgment; judgment on appeal
  • sentencia definitiva (recurrible)—final (appealable) judgment
  • sentencia firme (no recurrible)—final (unappealable) judgment; judgment that has become final
  • devenir firme; pasar en autoridad de cosa juzgada; causar estado; causar ejecutoria—to become final (and unappealable)
  • la sentencia ha devenido firme—the judgment has become final
  • sentencia contra la que no cabe recurso alguno—judgment not subject to appeal
  • sentencia meramente procesal; sentencia de absolución en la instancia—judgment without a ruling on the merits
  • sentencia material; sentencia sobre el fondo—judgment on the merits
  • sentencia declaratoria—declaratory judgment
  • sentencia desestimatoria; sentencia absolutoria—judgment for the defendant (civil proceedings)
  • sentencia estimatoria—judgment for the plaintiff (civil proceedings)
  • sentencia de condena; sentencia condenatoria—judgment for the plaintiff (awarding relief to the plaintiff) (civil proceedings)**
  • condena dineraria; condena al pago de cantidad de dinero—money judgment (civil proceedings)
  • condenado—judgment debtor (civil proceedings)
  • condena no dineraria—non-money judgment (civil proceedings)
  • sentencia ultra petita/petitum—judgment granting more than the relief requested
  • sentencia infra petita/petitum—judgment granting less than the relief requested
  • sentencia extra petita/petitum—judgment granting something other than the relief requested

Source: Rebecca Jowers. Léxico temático de terminología jurídica español-inglés. Madrid: Tirant lo Blanch, 2015, pp. 158-159.

https://rebeccajowers.com/2016/07/07/espanol-juridico-7/

** For additional meanings of condena and condenado in the context of criminal proceedings see: https://rebeccajowers.com/2016/09/22/multiple-meanings-of-condena/

 

 

 

Capsule Vocabularies: medidas cautelares (2)

ES-EN legal translators (and lawyers and professors) often require a minimum basic vocabulary in a specific area of law, something that they will be hard pressed to find searching word-by-word in a dictionary. (In this case, the “problem” with dictionaries is that they are in alphabetical order.) Blog entries labeled “Capsule Vocabularies” will feature some of the basic terminology lists developed for use by my students of legal English that I hope may also be of interest to translator and interpreter colleagues and other legal professionals.

Previous posts featured the basic vocabulary of Spanish provisional remedies proceedings* and the requisites for granting provisional remedies.** Here we look at some of the specific remedies available under the Civil Procedure Act (Ley de enjuiciamiento civil), providing a brief description where warranted and a possible English translation for each:

  • medidas cautelaresprovisional remedies; interim/interlocutory remedies; interim relief (or) injunctive relief (if the relief granted is an injunction—orden de hacer o no hacer)
  • embargo preventivo de bienes—pretrial/prejudgment attachment of assets
  • auto de embargo preventivo—writ of attachment; pretrial/prejudgment attachment order
  • anotación preventiva de demanda—notice of lis pendens; notice of pendency of action (entered on public registers)
  • orden de hacer o no hacer—mandatory or prohibitory injunction
  • orden de cesación/abstención/prohibición provisional—temporary restraining order; preliminary injunction; cease and desist order
  • intervención judicial de bienes productivos—placement of productive assets under judicial supervision (to monitor defendant’s management decisions)
  • interventor judicial—court-appointed supervisor (of defendant’s affairs)
  • administración judicial de bienes productivos—placement of productive assets under judicial receivership (appointment of a receiver to manage defendant’s assets)
  • administrador judicial—court-appointed receiver/manager (of defendant’s assets)
  • depósito de cosa mueble—consignment of personal property
  • depósito de las cantidades reclamadas—deposit into court of amounts claimed
  • formación de inventario de bienes—taking an inventory of defendant’s assets

*https://rebeccajowers.com/2016/09/21/capsule-vocabularies-medidas-cautelares-1/

** https://rebeccajowers.com/2016/09/21/latinismos-fumus-boni-iuris-periculum-in-mora/

Capsule Vocabularies: medidas cautelares (1)

ES-EN legal translators (and lawyers and professors) often require a minimum basic vocabulary in a specific area of law, something that they will be hard pressed to find searching word-by-word in a dictionary. (In this case, the “problem” with dictionaries is that they are in alphabetical order.) Blog entries labeled “Capsule Vocabularies” will feature some of the basic terminology lists developed for use by my students of legal English that I hope may also be of interest to translator and interpreter colleagues and other legal professionals.

medidas cautelares (provisional remedies)

Last week legal translator Alicia Martorell published an excellent article on the Spanish Civil Procedure Act (Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil—LEC) as a fundamental source of terminology for translators and interpreters.* She mentions many terms and expressions that may initially puzzle translators who are new to this field, such as carga de la prueba; the distinction between providencias, autos and sentencias; or the difference between resolución definitiva and resolución firme. I’ve examined all of those terms in previous posts, offering possible English translations for each.** Today I would like to look at one of the sections of the LEC that Martorell underscores merits particular attention: medidas cautelares, known in English as “provisional remedies,” but also “interim/interlocutory remedies,” “interim relief” or, if the relief granted is an injunction (orden de hacer o no hacer), “injunctive relief.” I’m providing below some of the vocabulary of procesos cautelares (“provisional remedy proceedings”) with possible renderings in English. In a second post, I will look at the different types of provisional remedies available under the LEC and how they may be expressed in English.

  •  demanda cautelar—motion for provisional remedies; application for interim relief
  • solicitar medidas cautelares—to apply for provisional remedies/interim relief/an injunction
  • solicitud de medidas cautelares a instancia de parte—ex parte application/motion for provisional remedies
  • oposición a la medida cautelar—(defendant’s) objection to the grant of provisional remedies
  • caución sustitutoria—substitute bond (bond posted by the defendant in lieu of a provisional remedy)
  • adoptar medidas cautelares—to grant/order provisional remedies/interim relief; to grant an injunction
  • resolución cautelardecision/ruling in provisional remedy proceedings
  • auto que acuerda medidas cautelares—order granting provisional remedies/interim relief/an injunction
  • auto que deniega las medidas cautelares—order denying the motion (or) application for provisional remedies/interim relief/an injunction
  • alzamiento de medidas cautelares—cancellation/revocation of provisional remedies; lifting an injunction

The requisites for granting medidas cautelares are fumus boni iuris and periculum in mora, two important latinismos that I will look at in a post tomorrow.

Read more here: Víctor Moreno Catena and Valentín Cortés Domínguez. Derecho Procesal Civil, Parte General. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2015, Lección 29: “Las medidas cautelares”, pp. 419-439.

* http://www.leglosa.com/blog/vocabulario-derecho-procesal-traductor-juridico

**carga de la prueba: https://rebeccajowers.com/2016/08/30/es-en-legal-translation-1/

sentencia definitiva/firme: https://rebeccajowers.com/2016/07/06/confusing-terms-10/

providencia; auto; sentencia: https://rebeccajowers.com/2016/07/07/espanol-juridico-7/

Capsule Vocabularies:Testamentos

ES-EN legal translators (and lawyers and professors) often require a minimum basic vocabulary in a specific area of law, something that they will be hard pressed to find searching word-by-word in a dictionary. (In this case, the “problem” with dictionaries is that they are in alphabetical order.) Blog entries labeled “Capsule Vocabularies” will feature some of the basic terminology lists developed for use by my students of legal English that I hope may also be of interest to translator and interpreter colleagues and other legal professionals.

Testamentos (Wills)

When first faced with a translation dealing with inheritance law (Derecho de sucesiones, usually called “law of succession” in British English), translators may be surprised by the many forms a will may take under Spanish law. In the Civil Code wills are classified as either testamentos comunes (“ordinary wills”)or testamentos especiales (“special wills”), each requiring numerous formalities to be considered valid. The details are provided in Articles 676-736 CC, but some of the basic related vocabulary is provided below with their possible English renderings:

Testamentos comunes (ordinary wills)

  • Testamento abierto (“open will”)—a will made before a certifying authority, usually a notary public (testamento notarial, or “notarially-certified will”), but sometimes before a diplomatic or consular officer.
  • Testamento en peligro inminente de muerte (“deathbed will”)—a will that may be made orally and that requires specific formalities with respect to the number of witnesses (testigos). Wills made orally are known as testamentos nuncupativos (“nuncupative wills”).
  • Testamento en tiempo de epidemia (“will made during an epidemic”)—a provision in disuse that reflects the era in which the original Civil Code was enacted (1889). (Both the testamento en peligro inminente de muerte and the testamento en tiempo de epidema provide means for making a will when no notary is available, and both lapse two months after they are made if not recorded in a notarial instrument and entered in a notary’s record books (a procedure known as elevación a escritura pública y protocolización).
  • Testamento cerrado (known in English as “closed will,” “sealed will,” “mystic will” or “secret will”—a will made by the testator (testador) without the intervention of a notary and sealed in an envelope. The testator declares before the notary that the envelope contains his will and the notary affixes to it a certification to that effect. It may be kept by the testator himself, a person of his confidence or deposited with the certifying notary. Upon the testator’s death it must be opened in the presence of the judge having jurisdiction where the testator died, together with the intervening notary and witnesses. If the judge is satisfied that the document is indeed the deceased’s last will and testament, he issues an auto ordenado la protocolización del testamento (order that the will be entered in the notary’s record books).
  • Testamento ológrafo (“holographic will”)—a will that is wholly handwritten and signed by the testator. Upon the testator’s death it must be submitted to a judge to be authenticated in a process called adveración del testamento (“authentication of the will”).

Testamentos especiales (special wills)

  • Testamento militar (“soldier’s will”)—a will made by members of the military on active duty and other personnel employed by the army during times of war and certified by a military auditor (interventor militar).
  • Testamento marítimo (“sailor’s will,” “seaman’s will” or “mariner’s will”—a will made by persons on board during a voyage at sea and certified by the captain or commander.
  • Testamento del español otorgado en país extranjero (“Spaniard’s will made in a foreign country”)—a will made abroad that may conform to the laws of the country in question or be made pursuant to Spanish law in the presence of the consular officer serving as notary in that jurisdiction (testamento consular, or “consular will”).

Source: Rebecca Jowers, “Léxico temático de terminología jurídica español-inglés.” Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2015, pp. 801-805.