Capsule Vocabularies: 30 EN-ES Competition Law Terms

  • wood-cube-abc-cube-letters-488981-e1536850974730
  • (Basic terms and concepts:)
  • Competition Law (EU); Antitrust Law (US)→Derecho de la Competencia; Derecho de la Libre Competencia
  • defense of competition→defensa de la competencia
  • competition policy→política de la competencia
  • competition rules→normas de competencia
  • anticompetitive practices→prácticas anticompetitivas
  • conduct in restraint of trade→prácticas restrictivas de la competencia
  • concerted practices→prácticas concertadas
  • acts of collusion→prácticas colusorias; conducta colusoria
  • distortion of competition→falseamiento de la libre competencia
  • abuse of dominant position→abuso de posición dominante
  • cartels→cárteles
  • foreclosure of competition→cierre del mercado a competidores potenciales
  • barriers to entry→barreras a la entrada
  • barriers to mobility; mobility barriers→barreras a la movilidad
  • horizontal agreements→acuerdos horizontales
  • vertical agreements→acuerdos verticales
  • production or delivery quota agreements→acuerdos sobre cuotas de producción o entrega
  • market-sharing agreements→acuerdos de reparto de mercado
  • price-fixing agreements→acuerdos de fijación de precios
  • exclusive collective markets→mercados colectivos exclusivos
  • collective boycotting→boicoteo colectivo
  • predatory pricing→imposición de precios predatorios
  • dumping→venta a precios inferiores al coste de producción
  • preemption of production/supply sources; preemption of essential facilities→acaparamiento de fuentes de producción/de aprovisionamiento
  • tied sales→ventas vinculadas
  • full-line forcing→imposición de la obligación de comprar una gama completa de productos
  • resale price maintenance→imposición de precios de reventa
  • refusal to deal/sell→negativa de suministro
  • bid-rigging (in public tenders)→pujas amañadas (en concursos públicos)
  • parallel imports, gray-market imports→importaciones paralelas

Source: Rebecca Jowers. Léxico temático de terminología jurídica español-inglés. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2015, pp. 935-938.

 

INCOTERMS (in Spanish and English) and what they mean

International Commercial Terms (“Incoterms”) are eleven internationally-acknowledged standard trade terms created by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)* to be used in sales contracts. They specify:

1) who (whether the seller or buyer) will be responsible for transportation costs, including insurance, taxes and duties

2) where the goods are to be picked up and delivered, and

3) who is responsible for the goods at each step of the transportation process and, particularly, when risk of damage to or loss of the goods pass from seller to buyer.

Below are the standard Incoterms in English and Spanish with a brief schematic explanation of each:

A) Incoterms for any mode of transportation:

EXW Ex Works (named place)–EXW En fábrica (lugar convenido)

Seller places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller’s premises or at another named place (factory, warehouse, etc.). The seller does not need to load the goods on any vehicle, nor clear the goods for export, if applicable. Buyer is responsible for all subsequent risks, transportation costs, taxes and duties from that point forward.

FCA Free Carrier (named place)–FCA Libre transportista (lugar convenido)

Seller delivers the goods to the buyer’s carrier at a designated place. At this point risk passes to buyer, who is then responsible for transportation to the final destination of delivery.

CPT Carriage paid to (named place of destination)–CPT Transporte pagado hasta (lugar de destino convenido)

Seller delivers the goods to a carrier designated by the seller at an agreed place. Seller contracts for and bears the cost of delivering the goods to the named place of destination.

CIP Carriage and Insurance Paid to (named place of destination)–CIP Transporte y seguros pagados hasta (lugar de destino convenido)

Seller delivers the goods to a carrier designated by the seller at an agreed place. Seller not only contracts for and bears the cost of delivering the goods to the named place of destination, but must likewise take out minimum insurance coverage against the buyer’s risk of loss or damage to the goods during transportation. Buyer may choose to contract additional insurance coverage.

DAT Delivered at Terminal (named terminal at port or place of destination)–DAT Entregado en terminal (puerto de destino convenido)

Seller is deemed to have delivered the goods when, once unloaded from the arriving means of transport, they are placed at the disposal of the buyer at a named terminal at the designated port or place of destination. Seller bears all risks involved in bringing the goods to and unloading them at the terminal at the port or place of destination.

DAP Delivered at Place (named place of destination)–DAP Entregado en un punto (lugar de destino convenido)

Seller is deemed to have delivered the goods when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving carrier ready for unloading at the named place of destination. Seller bears all risks involved in bringing the goods to the designated place.

DDP Delivered Duty Paid (named place of destination)–DDP Entregado, derechos pagados (lugar de destino convenido)

Seller is deemed to have delivered the goods when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer, cleared for import on the arriving means of transport and ready for unloading at the named place of destination. Seller bears all costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the place of destination, including clearing the goods for export and import, paying the corresponding duties and carrying out all customs formalities.

B) Incoterms specifically for sea and inland waterway transportation

FAS Free Alongside Ship (named loading port)–FAS Franco/Libre al costado del buque (puerto de carga convenido)

Seller is deemed to have delivered the goods when they are placed alongside the vessel (e.g., on a quay or a barge) designated by the buyer at the named port of shipment. Risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes to buyer when the goods are alongside the ship, and the buyer bears all costs from that moment onwards.

FOB Free on Board (named loading port)–FOB Franco/Libre a bordo (puerto de carga convenido)

Seller delivers the goods on board the vessel designated by the buyer at the named port of shipment. Risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes to buyer when the goods are on board the vessel, and the buyer bears all costs from that moment onwards.

CFR Cost and Freight (named port of destination)–CFR Coste y flete (puerto de destino convenido)

Seller delivers the goods on board the vessel and risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes to buyer once the goods are on board. Seller bears responsibility for contracting for and paying the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination.

CIF Cost, Insurance and Freight (named port of destination)–CIF Coste, seguro y flete (puerto de destino convenido)

Seller delivers the goods on board the vessel and risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes to buyer once the goods are on board. Seller not only bears responsibility for contracting for and paying the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination, but must likewise take out minimum insurance coverage against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during carriage. Buyer may choose to contract additional insurance coverage.

This ICC chart gives an informative Incoterms overview:

Incoterms 2010 (chart)

For a more detailed explanation of each Incoterm, see the ICC’s website: https://iccwbo.org/resources-for-business/incoterms-rules/incoterms-rules-2010/

The Terminology of Cybercrime

Terminology ofCybercrime

In a previous post I looked at possible ways of translating “cybergrooming,” one of the criminal offenses that can be committed on the Internet. As an addition, here are some of the other terms and expressions related to what is generally known as “cybercrime” that I have collected in my readings to be included in my personal glossaries. (There may be other possible renderings. Also note that some of these terms may be written either as one word or two: i.e., “cybercrime” or “cyber crime.”)

  • cybercrime; computer crime (ciberdelito; cibercriminalidad; criminalidad informática; delito informático/telemático; ciberdelincuencia; delincuencia informática)
  • cybercriminal (ciberdelincuente; delincuente informático)
  • cybersecurity (ciberseguridad; seguridad informática)
  • cyberrisk (ciberriesgo; riesgo informático)
  • cyberinsurance (ciberseguros)
  • cyberattack (ciberataque; ataque informático; ataque digital; ataque cibernético)
  • cybersabotaje (sabotaje informático)
  • cyberterrorism (ciberterrorismo)
  • cyberespionage; cyberspying (ciberespionaje)
  • computer fraud (fraude informático; estafa informática)
  • cybertheft (hurto informático)
  • cyberextortion (ciberextorsión)
  • cyberbulling (ciberacoso)
  • child sexual grooming; sexual grooming of children (ciberacoso sexual a menores; ciberacoso sexual infantil)
  • hacking (piratería informática; intrusismo informático; acceso no autorizado a sistemas informáticos)
  • hacker (pirata informático)
  • cracking (violación de códigos de acceso)
  • identity theft (usurpación de identidad)
  • phishing (apoderamiento de datos de acceso)
  • web spoofing (suplantación de página web)
  • piggybacking (parasitismo informático)
  • denial-of-service attack, DoS attack (ataque de denegación de servicio; ataque DoS)
  • data leakage; information leakage (fuga de datos; divulgación no autorizado de datos reservados)
  • data scavenging (apropiación de información residual)

 

Capsule Vocabularies: Terminology of Spanish Divorce Proceedings

wood-cube-abc-cube-letters-488981-e1536850974730

Although Spain has what may be described as “no fault divorce” (divorcio no causal), and one spouse needn’t allege grounds for divorce (causas de divorcio) against the other, divorce proceedings follow ordinary civil procedure. Thus in contested divorces (divorcios contenciosos) the spouse initiating the proceeding (the demandante) “sues” the other spouse (the demandado) by filing a petition for divorce (interponiendo demanda de divorcio).

Translation mistakes may result from the failure to recognize that the terminology of civil procedure is not commonly used in divorce proceedings in Anglo-American jurisdictions where specific, less “contentious” terms are preferred in this and in other family proceedings. In that regard it should be noted that a demanda de divorcio is often not a “complaint” or “claim,” but rather a “petition for divorce.” The spouse initiating the divorce is a “petitioner,” rather than a “plaintiff” or “claimant” (demandante).” Likewise, the spouse against whom divorce is sought is called the “respondent,” rather than a “defendant” (demandado). And in this context estimar la demanda de divorcio would be translated as “to grant a divorce,” while sentencia de divorcio is widely known as a “divorce decree.”

Some of the basic vocabulary concerning divorce proceedings in Spain is provided below:

  • divorcio—divorce
  • divorcio judicial—judicially-decreed divorce
  • causas de divorcio—grounds for divorce
  • divorcio causal; sistema causalista—fault-based divorce
  • divorcio no causal; divorcio sin alegar causa—no-fault divorce
  • divorcio contencioso—contested divorce; defended divorce (UK)
  • divorcio no contencioso—uncontested divorce; undefended divorce (UK)
  • divorcio de mutuo acuerdo—divorce by mutual consent
  • “divorcio exprés”—expedited divorce*
  • demanda de divorcio—divorce petition; petition for divorce
  • demandante—petitioner
  • demandado—respondent
  • estimar la demanda de divorcio—to grant a divorce
  • sentencia de divorcio—divorce decree

*Informal expression denoting a mutually-agreed expedited no-fault divorce proceeding introduced in the Ley 15/2005 divorce reform, requiring no separation period and that may be filed after only three months of marriage.

Source: Rebecca Jowers, Léxico temático de terminología jurídica español-inglés. Madrid: Tirant lo Blanch, 2015, pp. 720-721.

Capsule Vocabularies: Terminology of Labor Disputes

wood-cube-abc-cube-letters-488981-e1536850974730
ES-EN legal translators (and lawyers and professors) often require a minimum basic vocabulary in a specific area of law, something that they will be hard pressed to find searching word-by-word in a dictionary. (In this case, the “problem” with dictionaries is that they are in alphabetical order.) Blog entries labeled “Capsule Vocabularies” will feature some of the basic terminology lists developed for use by my students of legal English that I hope may also be of interest to translator and interpreter colleagues and other legal professionals.

Conflictos laborales—Labor Disputes (US); Industrial Disputes (UK)

Here are some of the basic terms relating to labor disputes in Spain, extracted from my readings on Derecho Laboral:

  • boicot—boycott
  • plante—work disruption
  • paralización de trabajo/actividades—work stoppage
  • paro concertado—concerted work stoppage
  • ocupación del centro de trabajo; ocupación de talleres—workers’ takeover of workplace premises
  • disminución del rendimiento; ralentización del trabajo—slowdown; go-slow (UK)
  • huelga—strike
  • huelga general—general strike
  • huelga intermitente—intermittent strike
  • huelga política—political strike
  • huelga rotatoria rotating strike
  • huelga en puntos clave; huelga neurálgica—selective strike
  • huelga de bajo rendimiento—slowdown strike
  • huelga de brazos caídos—sit-down/sit-in strike
  • huelga de celo; trabajo a reglamento—work-to-rule strike
  • huelga de solidaridad—sympathy strike
  • huelga de advertencia—token strike; warning strike
  • huelga ilegal—unlawful strike
  • huelga salvaje—wildcat strike
  • llamar a la huelga; declarar una huelga—to call a strike
  • ir a la huelga—to go on strike
  • comité de huelga—strike committee
  • caja de resistencia—strike fund
  • piquete de huelga—picket; picketing; picketers
  • piquete informativo—informational picketing
  • piquete coactivo—coercive picketing
  • piquete secundario—secondary picketing
  • línea de piquete—picket line
  • cierre patronal—lockout
  • sustitución de huelguistas—replacement of strikers
  • esquirolaje—strikebreaking; scabbing; black-legging (UK)
  • esquirol–strikebreaker; scab; blackleg (UK)

Source: Rebecca Jowers. Léxico temático de terminología jurídica español-inglés. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2015, pp. 489-90.

Capsule Vocabularies: Terminology of Spanish Judicial Decisions (2)

A previous blog post examined the difference between the principal types of Spanish judicial decisions (resoluciones judiciales): providencias, autos and sentencias. To complete this survey, here are some of the basic terms and expressions relating to judgments:

  • dictar sentencia—to render/hand down/give (E&W) judgment
  • tribunal sentenciador—adjudicating court; court rendering judgment
  • sentencia dictada en primera instancia—trial judgment
  • sentencia dictada en segunda instancia—appellate judgment; judgment on appeal
  • sentencia definitiva (recurrible)—final (appealable) judgment
  • sentencia firme (no recurrible)—final (unappealable) judgment; judgment that has become final
  • devenir firme; pasar en autoridad de cosa juzgada; causar estado; causar ejecutoria—to become final (and unappealable)
  • la sentencia ha devenido firme—the judgment has become final
  • sentencia contra la que no cabe recurso alguno—judgment not subject to appeal
  • sentencia meramente procesal; sentencia de absolución en la instancia—judgment without a ruling on the merits
  • sentencia material; sentencia sobre el fondo—judgment on the merits
  • sentencia declaratoria—declaratory judgment
  • sentencia desestimatoria; sentencia absolutoria—judgment for the defendant (civil proceedings)
  • sentencia estimatoria—judgment for the plaintiff (civil proceedings)
  • sentencia de condena; sentencia condenatoria—judgment for the plaintiff (awarding relief to the plaintiff) (civil proceedings)**
  • condena dineraria; condena al pago de cantidad de dinero—money judgment (civil proceedings)
  • condenado—judgment debtor (civil proceedings)
  • condena no dineraria—non-money judgment (civil proceedings)
  • sentencia ultra petita/petitum—judgment granting more than the relief requested
  • sentencia infra petita/petitum—judgment granting less than the relief requested
  • sentencia extra petita/petitum—judgment granting something other than the relief requested

Source: Rebecca Jowers. Léxico temático de terminología jurídica español-inglés. Madrid: Tirant lo Blanch, 2015, pp. 158-159.

** See here for additional meanings of condena and condenado in the context of Spanish criminal proceedings.

 

 

 

Capsule Vocabularies: medidas cautelares (2)

ES-EN legal translators (and lawyers and professors) often require a minimum basic vocabulary in a specific area of law, something that they will be hard pressed to find searching word-by-word in a dictionary. (In this case, the “problem” with dictionaries is that they are in alphabetical order.) Blog entries labeled “Capsule Vocabularies” will feature some of the basic terminology lists developed for use by my students of legal English that I hope may also be of interest to translator and interpreter colleagues and other legal professionals.

Previous posts featured the basic vocabulary of Spanish provisional remedies proceedings* and the requisites for granting provisional remedies.** Here we look at some of the specific remedies available under the Civil Procedure Act (Ley de enjuiciamiento civil), providing a brief description where warranted and a possible English translation for each:

  • medidas cautelaresprovisional remedies; interim/interlocutory remedies; interim relief (or) injunctive relief (if the relief granted is an injunction—orden de hacer o no hacer)
  • embargo preventivo de bienes—pretrial/prejudgment attachment of assets
  • auto de embargo preventivo—writ of attachment; pretrial/prejudgment attachment order
  • anotación preventiva de demanda—notice of lis pendens; notice of pendency of action (entered on public registers)
  • orden de hacer o no hacer—mandatory or prohibitory injunction
  • orden de cesación/abstención/prohibición provisional—temporary restraining order; preliminary injunction; cease and desist order
  • intervención judicial de bienes productivos—placement of productive assets under judicial supervision (to monitor defendant’s management decisions)
  • interventor judicial—court-appointed supervisor (of defendant’s affairs)
  • administración judicial de bienes productivos—placement of productive assets under judicial receivership (appointment of a receiver to manage defendant’s assets)
  • administrador judicial—court-appointed receiver/manager (of defendant’s assets)
  • depósito de cosa mueble—consignment of personal property
  • depósito de las cantidades reclamadas—deposit into court of amounts claimed
  • formación de inventario de bienes—taking an inventory of defendant’s assets

*https://rebeccajowers.com/2016/09/21/capsule-vocabularies-medidas-cautelares-1/

** https://rebeccajowers.com/2016/09/21/latinismos-fumus-boni-iuris-periculum-in-mora/