Capsule Vocabularies: Branches of Law in Spanish and English (2)–Private Law

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Yesterday we looked at the major branches of Spanish public law (Derecho público) in Spanish and English. To complete this terminology review, below are the main areas of law included in the private law category (Derecho privado), with possible English renderings:

Derecho civil–civil law

Derecho de la persona–law of persons

Derecho de obligaciones–law of obligations

Derecho de los contratos–contract law

Derecho de daños–law of torts; tort law

Derecho de familia–family law; domestic relations

Derecho matrimonial–matrimonial law

Derecho patrimonial–property law

Derecho inmobiliario–land law; law of real property; real estate law

Derecho registral–law of public registers

Derecho hipotecario; Derecho inmobiliario registral–law of land registration

Derecho notarial–notarial law; law of public notaries

Derecho de sucesiones–law of succession; inheritance law

Derecho mercantil–business law

Derecho de la propiedad intelectual; derechos de autor–copyright law; copyright

Derecho de la propiedad industrial (patentes, marcas, etc.)–industrial property law (patents, trademarks, etc.)

Derecho de marcas; Derecho marcario–trademark law

Derecho de patentes–patent law

Derecho societario; Derecho de sociedades–law of business organizations; corporate law; company law

Derecho bancario–banking law

Derecho del mercado de valores; Derecho bursátil–securities markets law

Derecho cambiario–law of negotiable instruments

Derecho de la competencia–competition law (EU); antitrust law (US)

Derecho de la competencia desleal–unfair competition law

Derecho de la publicidad–advertising law

Derecho contable–accounting law

Derecho concursal–insolvency law

Derechos de los seguros privados–insurance law

Derecho de la navegación–shipping law; maritime and aviation law

Derecho marítimo–maritime law; admiralty law

Derecho aeronáutico; Derecho aéreo–aviation law

Source: Léxico temático de terminología jurídica español-inglés

 

 

Capsule Vocabularies: Branches of Law in Spanish and English (1)–Public Law

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Spanish law is generally divided into two major branches (ramas de Derecho): Derecho público (public law) and Derecho privado (private law). Below are the principal disciplines included in Derecho público with possible English translations:

Derecho constitucional–constitutional law

Derecho eclesiástico del Estado–law of church-state relations

Derechos fundamentales–fundamental rights

Derecho económico; Derecho de la economía–economic law

Derecho administrativo–administrative law

Derecho parlamentario–parliamentary law

Derecho electoral–election law; electoral law

Derecho urbanístico–zoning law; urban planning

Derecho ambiental/medioambiental–environmental law

Derecho de los consumidores–consumer protection law

Derecho de aguas–water law

Derecho minero–mining law

Derecho de extranjería–immigration law

Derecho procesal–procedural law

Derecho procesal civil–civil procedure

Derecho procesal penal–criminal procedure

Derecho procesal laboral; Derecho procesal del trabajo–labor procedure

Derecho procesal contencioso administrativo–administrative procedure

Derecho penal–criminal law; penal law

Derecho penal del menor–juvenile justice

Derecho penitenciario–corrections law; prison law

Derecho del trabajo; Derecho laboral–labor law

Derecho individual del trabajo–employment law

Derecho de la Seguridad Social–social security law

Derecho financiero–finance law

Hacienda pública–public finance

Derecho presupuestario–budgetary law

Derecho tributario–tax law

(Tomorrow: Branches of Law in Spanish and English (2)–Private Law)

Source: Léxico temático de terminología jurídica español-inglés

Incoterms in Spanish and English: 2020 Update

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Way back in December 2017, I published an entry on the (then in force) 2010 “Incoterms (in Spanish and English) and what they mean.” , with a detailed bilingual chart describing each one. In this post I’m reviewing the information provided at that time for the many new readers of this blog who may have missed it, including the new DPU (formerly DAT) term in the amended 2020 Incoterms. A graphic showing the updated terms is available in this Incoterms 2020-responsibility chart, courtesy of Air and Surface Logistics.

International Commercial Terms (“Incoterms”) are eleven internationally-acknowledged standard trade terms created by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)* to be used in sales contracts. They specify:

1) who (whether the seller or buyer) will be responsible for transportation costs, including insurance, taxes and duties

2) where the goods are to be picked up and delivered, and

3) who is responsible for the goods at each step of the transportation process and, particularly, when risk of damage to or loss of the goods passes from seller to buyer.

Below are the standard Incoterms in English and Spanish with a brief schematic explanation of each:

A) Incoterms for multimodal transportation:

EXW Ex Works (named place)–EXW En fábrica (lugar convenido)

Seller places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller’s premises or at another named place (factory, warehouse, etc.). The seller does not need to load the goods on any vehicle, nor clear the goods for export, if applicable. Buyer is responsible for all subsequent risks, transportation costs, taxes and duties from that point forward.

FCA Free Carrier (named place)–FCA Libre transportista (lugar convenido)

Seller delivers the goods to the buyer’s carrier at a designated place. At this point risk passes to buyer, who is then responsible for transportation to the final destination of delivery.

CPT Carriage paid to (named place of destination)–CPT Transporte pagado hasta (lugar de destino convenido)

Seller delivers the goods to a carrier designated by the seller at an agreed place. Seller contracts for and bears the cost of delivering the goods to the named place of destination.

CIP Carriage and Insurance Paid to (named place of destination)–CIP Transporte y seguros pagados hasta (lugar de destino convenido)

Seller delivers the goods to a carrier designated by the seller at an agreed place. Seller not only contracts for and bears the cost of delivering the goods to the named place of destination, but must likewise take out minimum insurance coverage against the buyer’s risk of loss or damage to the goods during transportation. Buyer may choose to contract additional insurance coverage.

DAP Delivered at Place (named place of destination)–DAP Entregado en un punto (lugar de destino convenido)

Seller is deemed to have delivered the goods when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving carrier ready for unloading at the named place of destination. Seller bears all risks involved in bringing the goods to the designated place.

DAU (formerly: DAT) Delivered at Place Unloaded (named place of destination)–DAU Entregado y descargado (lugar de destino destino convenido)

Seller is deemed to have delivered the goods when, once unloaded from the arriving means of transport, they are placed at the disposal of the buyer at a named terminal at the designated port or place of destination. Seller bears all risks involved in bringing the goods to and unloading them at the terminal at the port or place of destination.

DDP Delivered Duty Paid (named place of destination)–DDP Entregado, derechos pagados (lugar de destino convenido

B) Incoterms specifically for sea and inland waterway transport

FAS Free Alongside Ship (named loading port)–FAS Franco/Libre al costado del buque (puerto de carga convenido)

Seller is deemed to have delivered the goods when they are placed alongside the vessel (e.g., on a quay or a barge) designated by the buyer at the named port of shipment. Risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes to buyer when the goods are alongside the ship, and the buyer bears all costs from that moment onwards.

FOB Free on Board (named loading port)–FOB Franco/Libre a bordo (puerto de carga convenido)

Seller delivers the goods on board the vessel designated by the buyer at the named port of shipment. Risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes to buyer when the goods are on board the vessel, and the buyer bears all costs from that moment onwards.

CFR Cost and Freight (named port of destination)–CFR Coste y flete (puerto de destino convenido)

Seller delivers the goods on board the vessel and risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes to buyer once the goods are on board. Seller bears responsibility for contracting for and paying the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination.

CIF Cost, Insurance and Freight (named port of destination)–CIF Coste, seguro y flete (puerto de destino convenido)

Seller delivers the goods on board the vessel and risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes to buyer once the goods are on board. Seller not only bears responsibility for contracting for and paying the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination, but must likewise take out minimum insurance coverage against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during carriage. Buyer may choose to contract additional insurance coverage.

Translating “hechos” across Legal Disciplines

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One of my lawyer students of Legal English recently asked me how to translate hechos, whether they are “acts,” “facts,” “events” or something else. And of course I had to reply that it depends on the context (in legal translation, context is everything). Here are a few examples from Spanish law with (possible / approximate) English translations (there may be others):

Derecho registral

  • hechos inscribibles (recordable events)

Derecho de daños

  • responsabilidad por hechos propios (personal liability)
  • responsabilidad por hechos ajenos (vicarious liability)

Derecho procesal

  • hechos aducidos (facts alleged [in pleadings, etc.])
  • hechos controvertidos (facts in issue; facts in dispute)
  • hechos no controvertidos (undisputed/uncontested facts)
  • hechos probados (proven facts; facts as found)
  • hechos notorios (facts that are common knowledge)
  • hechos notorios no necesitados de prueba (judicial facts; judicially-noticed facts)
  • hechos nuevos o de nueva noticia (new or after-discovered evidence)

Derecho penal

  • hecho típico (criminal offense; act/action/conduct defined as a criminal offense)
  • hecho constitutivo de la infracción penal (conduct constituting a criminal offense)
  • lugar de los hechos (crime scene)

Derecho tributario

  • hecho imponible (taxable event)

Derecho de familia

  • unión de hecho (nonmarital union; domestic partnership)
  • pareja de hecho (nonmarital/unmarried couple)
  • guarda de hecho (de facto guardianship)

Derecho de sociedades

  • comunicación de hechos relevantes (notice/disclosure of material events)

Derecho contable

  • hechos posteriores al cierre (events after the reporting period)

Source: Rebecca Jowers. Léxico temático de terminología jurídica español-inglés. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2015.

Capsule Vocabularies: 30 EN-ES Competition Law Terms

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  • (Basic terms and concepts:)
  • Competition Law (EU); Antitrust Law (US)→Derecho de la Competencia; Derecho de la Libre Competencia
  • defense of competition→defensa de la competencia
  • competition policy→política de la competencia
  • competition rules→normas de competencia
  • anticompetitive practices→prácticas anticompetitivas
  • conduct in restraint of trade→prácticas restrictivas de la competencia
  • concerted practices→prácticas concertadas
  • acts of collusion→prácticas colusorias; conducta colusoria
  • distortion of competition→falseamiento de la libre competencia
  • abuse of dominant position→abuso de posición dominante
  • cartels→cárteles
  • foreclosure of competition→cierre del mercado a competidores potenciales
  • barriers to entry→barreras a la entrada
  • barriers to mobility; mobility barriers→barreras a la movilidad
  • horizontal agreements→acuerdos horizontales
  • vertical agreements→acuerdos verticales
  • production or delivery quota agreements→acuerdos sobre cuotas de producción o entrega
  • market-sharing agreements→acuerdos de reparto de mercado
  • price-fixing agreements→acuerdos de fijación de precios
  • exclusive collective markets→mercados colectivos exclusivos
  • collective boycotting→boicoteo colectivo
  • predatory pricing→imposición de precios predatorios
  • dumping→venta a precios inferiores al coste de producción
  • preemption of production/supply sources; preemption of essential facilities→acaparamiento de fuentes de producción/de aprovisionamiento
  • tied sales→ventas vinculadas
  • full-line forcing→imposición de la obligación de comprar una gama completa de productos
  • resale price maintenance→imposición de precios de reventa
  • refusal to deal/sell→negativa de suministro
  • bid-rigging (in public tenders)→pujas amañadas (en concursos públicos)
  • parallel imports, gray-market imports→importaciones paralelas

Source: Rebecca Jowers. Léxico temático de terminología jurídica español-inglés. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2015, pp. 935-938.

 

INCOTERMS (in Spanish and English) and what they mean

International Commercial Terms (“Incoterms”) are eleven internationally-acknowledged standard trade terms created by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)* to be used in sales contracts. They specify:

1) who (whether the seller or buyer) will be responsible for transportation costs, including insurance, taxes and duties

2) where the goods are to be picked up and delivered, and

3) who is responsible for the goods at each step of the transportation process and, particularly, when risk of damage to or loss of the goods pass from seller to buyer.

Below are the standard Incoterms in English and Spanish with a brief schematic explanation of each:

A) Incoterms for any mode of transportation:

EXW Ex Works (named place)–EXW En fábrica (lugar convenido)

Seller places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller’s premises or at another named place (factory, warehouse, etc.). The seller does not need to load the goods on any vehicle, nor clear the goods for export, if applicable. Buyer is responsible for all subsequent risks, transportation costs, taxes and duties from that point forward.

FCA Free Carrier (named place)–FCA Libre transportista (lugar convenido)

Seller delivers the goods to the buyer’s carrier at a designated place. At this point risk passes to buyer, who is then responsible for transportation to the final destination of delivery.

CPT Carriage paid to (named place of destination)–CPT Transporte pagado hasta (lugar de destino convenido)

Seller delivers the goods to a carrier designated by the seller at an agreed place. Seller contracts for and bears the cost of delivering the goods to the named place of destination.

CIP Carriage and Insurance Paid to (named place of destination)–CIP Transporte y seguros pagados hasta (lugar de destino convenido)

Seller delivers the goods to a carrier designated by the seller at an agreed place. Seller not only contracts for and bears the cost of delivering the goods to the named place of destination, but must likewise take out minimum insurance coverage against the buyer’s risk of loss or damage to the goods during transportation. Buyer may choose to contract additional insurance coverage.

DAT Delivered at Terminal (named terminal at port or place of destination)–DAT Entregado en terminal (puerto de destino convenido)

Seller is deemed to have delivered the goods when, once unloaded from the arriving means of transport, they are placed at the disposal of the buyer at a named terminal at the designated port or place of destination. Seller bears all risks involved in bringing the goods to and unloading them at the terminal at the port or place of destination.

DAP Delivered at Place (named place of destination)–DAP Entregado en un punto (lugar de destino convenido)

Seller is deemed to have delivered the goods when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving carrier ready for unloading at the named place of destination. Seller bears all risks involved in bringing the goods to the designated place.

DDP Delivered Duty Paid (named place of destination)–DDP Entregado, derechos pagados (lugar de destino convenido)

Seller is deemed to have delivered the goods when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer, cleared for import on the arriving means of transport and ready for unloading at the named place of destination. Seller bears all costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the place of destination, including clearing the goods for export and import, paying the corresponding duties and carrying out all customs formalities.

B) Incoterms specifically for sea and inland waterway transportation

FAS Free Alongside Ship (named loading port)–FAS Franco/Libre al costado del buque (puerto de carga convenido)

Seller is deemed to have delivered the goods when they are placed alongside the vessel (e.g., on a quay or a barge) designated by the buyer at the named port of shipment. Risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes to buyer when the goods are alongside the ship, and the buyer bears all costs from that moment onwards.

FOB Free on Board (named loading port)–FOB Franco/Libre a bordo (puerto de carga convenido)

Seller delivers the goods on board the vessel designated by the buyer at the named port of shipment. Risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes to buyer when the goods are on board the vessel, and the buyer bears all costs from that moment onwards.

CFR Cost and Freight (named port of destination)–CFR Coste y flete (puerto de destino convenido)

Seller delivers the goods on board the vessel and risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes to buyer once the goods are on board. Seller bears responsibility for contracting for and paying the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination.

CIF Cost, Insurance and Freight (named port of destination)–CIF Coste, seguro y flete (puerto de destino convenido)

Seller delivers the goods on board the vessel and risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes to buyer once the goods are on board. Seller not only bears responsibility for contracting for and paying the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination, but must likewise take out minimum insurance coverage against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during carriage. Buyer may choose to contract additional insurance coverage.

This ICC chart gives an informative Incoterms overview:

Incoterms 2010 (chart)

For a more detailed explanation of each Incoterm, see the ICC’s website: https://iccwbo.org/resources-for-business/incoterms-rules/incoterms-rules-2010/

The Terminology of Cybercrime

Terminology ofCybercrime

In a previous post I looked at possible ways of translating “cybergrooming,” one of the criminal offenses that can be committed on the Internet. As an addition, here are some of the other terms and expressions related to what is generally known as “cybercrime” that I have collected in my readings to be included in my personal glossaries. (There may be other possible renderings. Also note that some of these terms may be written either as one word or two: i.e., “cybercrime” or “cyber crime.”)

  • cybercrime; computer crime (ciberdelito; cibercriminalidad; criminalidad informática; delito informático/telemático; ciberdelincuencia; delincuencia informática)
  • cybercriminal (ciberdelincuente; delincuente informático)
  • cybersecurity (ciberseguridad; seguridad informática)
  • cyberrisk (ciberriesgo; riesgo informático)
  • cyberinsurance (ciberseguros)
  • cyberattack (ciberataque; ataque informático; ataque digital; ataque cibernético)
  • cybersabotaje (sabotaje informático)
  • cyberterrorism (ciberterrorismo)
  • cyberespionage; cyberspying (ciberespionaje)
  • computer fraud (fraude informático; estafa informática)
  • cybertheft (hurto informático)
  • cyberextortion (ciberextorsión)
  • cyberbulling (ciberacoso)
  • child sexual grooming; sexual grooming of children (ciberacoso sexual a menores; ciberacoso sexual infantil)
  • hacking (piratería informática; intrusismo informático; acceso no autorizado a sistemas informáticos)
  • hacker (pirata informático)
  • cracking (violación de códigos de acceso)
  • identity theft (usurpación de identidad)
  • phishing (apoderamiento de datos de acceso)
  • web spoofing (suplantación de página web)
  • piggybacking (parasitismo informático)
  • denial-of-service attack, DoS attack (ataque de denegación de servicio; ataque DoS)
  • data leakage; information leakage (fuga de datos; divulgación no autorizado de datos reservados)
  • data scavenging (apropiación de información residual)