Capsule Vocabularies: medidas cautelares (2)

Legal translators (and lawyers and professors) often require a minimum basic vocabulary in a specific area of law, something that they will be hard pressed to find searching word-by-word in a dictionary. (In this case, the “problem” with dictionaries is that they are in alphabetical order.) Blog entries labeled “Capsule Vocabularies” feature some of the basic terminology lists developed for use by my students of Legal English that I hope may also be of interest to translator and interpreter colleagues and other legal professionals.

Vocabulary Medidas Cautelares 2

A previous post featured the basic vocabulary of Spanish provisional remedies proceedings and the requisites for granting provisional remedies. Here we look at some of the specific remedies available under the Civil Procedure Act (Ley de enjuiciamiento civil), providing a brief description where warranted and a possible English translation for each. (The source of this terminology is my Léxico temático de terminología temática español-inglés.)

  • medidas cautelaresprovisional remedies; interim/interlocutory remedies; interim relief (or) injunctive relief (if the relief granted is an injunction—orden de hacer o no hacer)
  • embargo preventivo de bienes—pretrial/prejudgment attachment of assets
  • auto de embargo preventivo—writ of attachment; pretrial/prejudgment attachment order
  • anotación preventiva de demanda—notice of lis pendens; notice of pendency of action (entered on public registers)
  • orden de hacer o no hacer—mandatory or prohibitory injunction
  • orden de cesación/abstención/prohibición provisional—temporary restraining order; preliminary injunction; cease and desist order
  • intervención judicial de bienes productivos—placement of productive assets under judicial supervision (to monitor defendant’s management decisions)
  • interventor judicial—court-appointed supervisor (of defendant’s affairs)
  • administración judicial de bienes productivos—placement of productive assets under judicial receivership (appointment of a receiver to manage defendant’s assets)
  • administrador judicial—court-appointed receiver/manager (of defendant’s assets)
  • depósito de cosa mueble—consignment of personal property
  • depósito de las cantidades reclamadas—deposit into court of amounts claimed
  • formación de inventario de bienes—taking an inventory of defendant’s assets

Read more: Víctor Moreno Catena and Valentín Cortés Domínguez. Derecho Procesal Civil, Parte General. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2015, Lección 29: “Las medidas cautelares”, pp. 419-439.

 

 

Capsule Vocabularies: medidas cautelares (1)

Legal translators (and lawyers and professors) often require a minimum basic vocabulary in a specific area of law, something that they will be hard pressed to find searching word-by-word in a dictionary. (In this case, the “problem” with dictionaries is that they are in alphabetical order.) Blog entries labeled “Capsule Vocabularies” feature some of the basic terminology lists developed for use by my students of legal English that I hope may also be of interest to translator and interpreter colleagues and other legal professionals.

Vocabulary Medidas Cautelares 1

 

medidas cautelares (provisional remedies)

When dealing with civil proceedings, the Spanish Civil Procedure Act (Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil—LEC) is a fundamental source of terminology for translators and interpreters. Several terms and expressions that may initially puzzle those new to this field have been discussed here in previous posts in which I offer possible English translations for each. These include carga de la prueba; the distinction between providencias, autos and sentencias; or the difference between resolución definitiva and resolución firme. This post examines one of the sections of the LEC that merits particular attention: medidas cautelares, known in English as “provisional remedies,” but also as “interim (or) interlocutory remedies,” “interim relief” or, if the relief granted is an injunction (orden de hacer o no hacer), “injunctive relief.” Here I’m providing some of the vocabulary concerning procesos cautelares (“provisional remedy proceedings”). A second post looks at the different types of provisional remedies available under the LEC and how they may be expressed in English. (The source of this terminology is my Léxico temático de terminología temática español-inglés.)

  •  demanda cautelar—motion for provisional remedies; application for interim relief
  • solicitar medidas cautelares—to apply for provisional remedies/interim relief/an injunction
  • solicitud de medidas cautelares a instancia de parte—ex parte application/motion for provisional remedies
  • oposición a la medida cautelar—(defendant’s) objection to the grant of provisional remedies
  • caución sustitutoria—substitute bond (bond posted by the defendant in lieu of a provisional remedy)
  • adoptar medidas cautelares—to grant/order provisional remedies/interim relief; to grant an injunction
  • resolución cautelardecision/ruling in provisional remedy proceedings
  • auto que acuerda medidas cautelares—order granting provisional remedies/interim relief/an injunction
  • auto que deniega las medidas cautelares—order denying the motion (or) application for provisional remedies/interim relief/an injunction
  • alzamiento de medidas cautelares—cancellation/revocation of provisional remedies; lifting an injunction

The requisites for granting medidas cautelares are fumus boni iuris and periculum in mora, two important latinismos explained here.

Read more: Víctor Moreno Catena and Valentín Cortés Domínguez. Derecho Procesal Civil, Parte General. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2015, Lección 29: “Las medidas cautelares”, pp. 419-439.

 

Capsule Vocabularies:Testamentos

ES-EN legal translators (and lawyers and professors) often require a minimum basic vocabulary in a specific area of law, something that they will be hard pressed to find searching word-by-word in a dictionary. (In this case, the “problem” with dictionaries is that they are in alphabetical order.) Blog entries labeled “Capsule Vocabularies” will feature some of the basic terminology lists developed for use by my students of legal English that I hope may also be of interest to translator and interpreter colleagues and other legal professionals.

Testamentos (Wills)

When first faced with a translation dealing with inheritance law (Derecho de sucesiones, usually called “law of succession” in British English), translators may be surprised by the many forms a will may take under Spanish law. In the Civil Code wills are classified as either testamentos comunes (“ordinary wills”)or testamentos especiales (“special wills”), each requiring numerous formalities to be considered valid. The details are provided in Articles 676-736 CC, but some of the basic related vocabulary is provided below with their possible English renderings:

Testamentos comunes (ordinary wills)

  • Testamento abierto (“open will”)—a will made before a certifying authority, usually a notary public (testamento notarial, or “notarially-certified will”), but sometimes before a diplomatic or consular officer.
  • Testamento en peligro inminente de muerte (“deathbed will”)—a will that may be made orally and that requires specific formalities with respect to the number of witnesses (testigos). Wills made orally are known as testamentos nuncupativos (“nuncupative wills”).
  • Testamento en tiempo de epidemia (“will made during an epidemic”)—a provision in disuse that reflects the era in which the original Civil Code was enacted (1889). (Both the testamento en peligro inminente de muerte and the testamento en tiempo de epidema provide means for making a will when no notary is available, and both lapse two months after they are made if not recorded in a notarial instrument and entered in a notary’s record books (a procedure known as elevación a escritura pública y protocolización).
  • Testamento cerrado (known in English as “closed will,” “sealed will,” “mystic will” or “secret will”—a will made by the testator (testador) without the intervention of a notary and sealed in an envelope. The testator declares before the notary that the envelope contains his will and the notary affixes to it a certification to that effect. It may be kept by the testator himself, a person of his confidence or deposited with the certifying notary. Upon the testator’s death it must be opened in the presence of the judge having jurisdiction where the testator died, together with the intervening notary and witnesses. If the judge is satisfied that the document is indeed the deceased’s last will and testament, he issues an auto ordenado la protocolización del testamento (order that the will be entered in the notary’s record books).
  • Testamento ológrafo (“holographic will”)—a will that is wholly handwritten and signed by the testator. Upon the testator’s death it must be submitted to a judge to be authenticated in a process called adveración del testamento (“authentication of the will”).

Testamentos especiales (special wills)

  • Testamento militar (“soldier’s will”)—a will made by members of the military on active duty and other personnel employed by the army during times of war and certified by a military auditor (interventor militar).
  • Testamento marítimo (“sailor’s will,” “seaman’s will” or “mariner’s will”—a will made by persons on board during a voyage at sea and certified by the captain or commander.
  • Testamento del español otorgado en país extranjero (“Spaniard’s will made in a foreign country”)—a will made abroad that may conform to the laws of the country in question or be made pursuant to Spanish law in the presence of the consular officer serving as notary in that jurisdiction (testamento consular, or “consular will”).

Source: Rebecca Jowers, “Léxico temático de terminología jurídica español-inglés.” Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2015, pp. 801-805.

Capsule Vocabularies: Principios Contables

ES-EN legal translators (and lawyers and professors) often require a minimum basic vocabulary in a specific area of law, something that they will be hard pressed to find searching word-by-word in a dictionary. (In this case, the “problem” with dictionaries is that they are in alphabetical order.) Blog entries labeled “Capsule Vocabularies” will feature some of the basic terminology lists developed for use by my students of legal English that I hope may also be of interest to translator and interpreter colleagues and other legal professionals.

 Principios contables (Accounting Principles)

Here are some of the basic principles appearing in the Spanish Plan General de Contabilidad:

Principio de empresa en funcionamiento (salvo prueba en contrario, se considerará que la gestión de la empresa continuará en un futuro previsible) Going-concern Principle (unless demonstrated otherwise, it is presumed that the company will continue in operation for the foreseeable future)
Principio de devengo (registro de los efectos de las transacciones o hechos económicos cuando ocurran) Accrual-based Accounting Principle (recognition of the effects of transactions and economic events when they occur)
Principio de uniformidad/continuidad (aplicación en el tiempo del mismo criterio de manera uniforme) Consistent Accounting Methods Principle (uniform application of the same criterion over time)
Principio de prudencia (prudencia en las estimaciones y valoraciones a realizar en condiciones de incertidumbre) Prudence Principle (prudence in estimates and valuations made in uncertain conditions)
Principio de no compensación (salvo que una norma disponga de forma expresa lo contrario, no podrán compensarse partidas de activo y pasivo o de gastos e ingresos) No-netting Principle (unless a rule expressly provides otherwise, items in assets and liabilities or expenses and income may not be set off against each other)
Principio de importancia relativa (admisión de la no aplicación estricta de algunos principios y criterios contables cuando su importancia relativa sea escasamente significativa) Materiality Principle (admission that certain accounting principles and criteria may not be applied strictly when they are relatively immaterial)

Source: Rebecca Jowers. Léxico temático de terminología jurídica español-inglés. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2015, pp. 917-918.

Capsule Vocabularies: Análisis forense

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In their work ES-EN legal translators (and lawyers and professors) often require a minimum basic vocabulary in a specific area of law, something that they will be hard pressed to find searching word-by-word in a dictionary. (In this case, the “problem” with dictionaries is that they are in alphabetical order!) Blog entries labeled “Capsule Vocabularies” will feature some of the basic terminology lists developed for use by my students of legal English that may also be of interest to translator and interpreter colleagues and other legal professionals.

(Análisis forense) Forensic Analysis

  • policía científica—forensic police; crime scene investigators
  • inspección ocular técnico policial—crime scene investigation
  • análisis dactiloscópico; dactiloscopia—fingerprint analysis; dactyloscopy
  • prueba dactiloscópica—fingerprint evidence
  • análisis lofoscópico; lofoscopia—handprint/footprint analysis
  • análisis de ADN—DNA analysis
  • marcadores de ADN—DNA markers
  • análisis toxicológico—toxicological analysis
  • análisis balístico (balística forense)—ballistic analysis (forensic ballistics)
  • análisis acústico (acústica forense)—acoustic analysis (forensic acoustics)
  • muestra de voz—voice sample/exemplar
  • fonograma verbal—voice print; speech spectogram
  • análisis documentoscópico (documentoscopia)—document analysis
  • análisis grafoscópico (grafoscopia)–handwriting analysis
  • perito calígrafo—handwriting expert
  • cuerpo de escritura—handwriting sample/exemplar
  • análisis entomológico (entomología forense)—entomological analysis (forensic entomology)
  • cronotanatodiagnóstico—analysis/calculation of the time of death
  • análisis informático (informática forense)—computer analysis (computer forensics)
  • análisis antropológico (antropología forense)—anthropological analysis (forensic anthropology)
  • autopsia; necropsia—autopsy; necropsy; postmortem examination

Source: Rebecca Jowers, Léxico temático de terminología jurídica español-inglés. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2015, pp. 353-355.

Capsule Vocabularies: Servidumbres

ES-EN legal translators (and lawyers and professors) often require a minimum basic vocabulary in a specific area of law, something that they will be hard pressed to find searching word-by-word in a dictionary. (In this case, the “problem” with dictionaries is that they are in alphabetical order.) Blog entries labeled “Capsule Vocabularies” will feature some of the basic terminology lists developed for use by my students of legal English that I hope may also be of interest to translator and interpreter colleagues and other legal professionals.

Servidumbres (Easements)

Translators dealing with property law texts are sometimes surprised by the number of servidumbres (easements) provided for in the Spanish Civil Code. Here are the major categories of servidumbre and other related vocabulary with their corresponding English translations:

  • predio/fundo/heredad dominante─dominant tenement/estate; benefited property
  • predio/fundo/heredad sirviente─servient tenement/estate; burdened property
  • servidumbre predial─easement that runs with the land
  • servidumbre personal─easement in gross
  • servidumbre positiva─affirmative easement; positive easement
  • servidumbre negativa─negative easement
  • servidumbre continua─continuous easement
  • servidumbre discontinua─discontinuous easement
  • servidumbre aparente─apparent easement
  • servidumbre no aparente─nonapparent easement
  • servidumbre legal─legal easement; easement created by operation of law
  • servidumbre en equidad─equitable easement
  • servidumbre voluntaria─easement by express grant; easement by agreement of the parties
  • servidumbre adquirida por usucapión─prescriptive easement; easement by prescription; adverse easement
  • servidumbre pública─public easement
  • servidumbre en materia de agua─water easement; water rights
  • servidumbre natural de las aguas─right to natural waterflows
  • servidumbre de las márgenes de cauces públicos─riparian water rights; right to use of riverbanks
  • servidumbre de camino de sirga─towpath easement
  • servidumbre de estribo de presa─dam easement
  • servidumbre de parada o partidor─irrigation system easement
  • servidumbre de saca de agua─right to draw water; easement to draw water
  • servidumbre de acueducto─water conveyance easement
  • servidumbre de desagüe─drainage easement
  • servidumbre de vertiente de tejados─roof water runoff/drainage easement
  • servidumbre de abrevadero─livestock watering easement
  • servidumbre de acceso al mar─beach access easement; easement providing access to the sea
  • servidumbre de paso─right of way; access easement; easement of passage
  • servidumbre de paso permanente─permanent right of way
  • servidumbre industrial─utility easement
  • servidumbre de paso en beneficio de fincas enclavadas─right of way to landlocked property; landlocked property easement
  • servidumbre temporal por obras─temporary construction easement
  • servidumbre de paso para ganado─livestock right of way; livestock easement
  • servidumbre de descansadero─easement for resting livestock
  • servidumbre de majada─easement for overnighting livestock
  • servidumbre de pastos─grazing easement
  • servidumbre de leña─timber easement; timber rights
  • servidumbre de medianería─party wall easement
  • servidumbre de luces y vistas─light and air easement

 Source: Rebecca Jowers. Léxico temático de terminología jurídica español-inglés. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2015, pp. 770-772.

Capsule Vocabularies: Trademarks

LeGal English_ _Brand_ & _Tracemark_(1)
ES-EN legal translators (and lawyers and professors) often require a minimum basic vocabulary in a specific area of law, something that they will be hard pressed to find searching word-by-word in a dictionary. (In this case, the “problem” with dictionaries is that they are in alphabetical order.) Blog entries labeled “Capsule Vocabularies” will feature some of the basic terminology lists developed for use by my students of legal English that I hope may also be of interest to translator and interpreter colleagues and other legal professionals.

Marcas (Trademarks)

Derecho de marcas; Derecho marcario—trademark law
marca—trademark; trade mark (UK)
marca denominativa—word mark
marca gráfica—device/design mark
marca mixta—composite mark
marca publicitaria—slogan mark
marca de fantasía—fanciful mark
marca tridimensional—three-dimensional mark
marca sonora—sound mark
marca de garantía—certification mark
marca colectiva—collective mark
marca de servicio—service mark
marca notoria—well-known mark (known to consumers in the sector)
marca renombrada—renowned mark (known to the public in general)
marca anterior—earlier mark
marca prioritaria—prior mark
marcas confrontadas—conflicting marks
marcas idénticas—identical marks
marcas incompatibles/confundibles/que inducen a confusión—confusingly similar marks
marca descriptiva—descriptive mark
marca consolidada/inatacable—incontestable mark
marca multiclase—multi-class mark
marca defensiva—defensive mark; defensive registration

 

Source: Rebecca Jowers. Léxico temático de terminología jurídica español-inglés. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2015, pp. 925-926.