Legal Look-alikes: When “evidence” isn’t evidencia

Legal _Look-alikes_

In the context of Spanish procedural law, “evidence” cannot usually be rendered as evidencia, but rather refers to prueba(s). After the parties’ initial “proposal of evidence” (proposición de la prueba), the judge will issue a “ruling on the admissibility of the proposed evidence” (resolución sobre la admisibilidad de las pruebas propuestas). In this context, inadmisión de los medios de prueba denotes a judge’s “exclusión of evidence” and práctica de la prueba refers to the “examination of evidence” at trial. Specific types of evidence (medios de prueba) include, among others, prueba testifical (“testimonial evidence,” “witness testimony”); prueba documental (“documentary evidence”) and prueba pericial (“expert evidence,” “expert witness testimony”).

Although the terminology of evidence is quite extensive, common classifications include prueba pertinente/impertinente (“relevant/irrelevant evidence”), prueba útil/inútil (“material/immaterial evidence,” in the sense of being appropriate or inappropriate for demonstrating the fact that it is intended to prove), and prueba directa or prueba presencial (“direct evidence, “eyewitness evidence”) as opposed to prueba indirecta or prueba indiciaria (“indirect evidence”or “circumstancial evidence”). In Spanish criminal procedure the expression prueba preconstituida denotes documented evidence existing prior to trial, which cannot be reproduced and examined later during the trial itself. Typical examples include “crime scene inspections” (inspecciones oculares en el lugar del delito); “autopsies” (autopsias), “breath alcohol tests” (pruebas de alcoholemia), and “police lineups” (ruedas de reconocimiento), called “identity parades” in BrE. In contrast, prueba anticipada refers to “evidence taken prior to trial” by the criminal trial judge, in the presence of all parties and under extraordinary circumstances (such as taking testimony from a terminally-ill witness who might not be able to testify in court at a later date).

Likewise in criminal procedure contexts, prueba obtenida ilícitamente is “illegally-obtained evidence,” while prueba prohibida specifically denotes “evidence obtained in violation of fundamental rights” (pruebas obtenidas, directamente o indirectamente, violentando los derechos o libertades fundamentales). And prueba de cargo is “incriminating evidence” as opposed to prueba de descargo (“exculpatory evidence”).

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